GERD (Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease)

GERD is a chronic disease where the acidic contents of the stomach get refluxed into the lower esophagus, thereby causing damage to it.

  • Heartburn
  • Abdominal or chest pain
  • Belching or bloating
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Regurgitation
  • Nausea or vomiting


  • Caused by damage or abnormalities in the barrier between the esophagus and stomach
  • Abnormal relaxation in the sphincter muscles that help seal off the stomach
  • Impaired expulsion of the acidic, semi-digested content from the stomach or esophagus

Long-Term Risks

  • Severe intestinal damage
  • Severe, chronic esophageal damage


  • 360° Nissen fundoplication (NF)
  • Toupet fundoplication (TF)

A few incisions are made in the abdomen area, through which tiny tube shaped instruments are inserted. A laparoscope which has a tiny video camera and a powerful light source is then inserted through this incision to allow the doctor to view the procedure on a monitor. Another incision is used to insert surgical instruments in the body by which the procedure is carried out. It is performed under general anesthesia.